The largest landlocked country in the world, Kazakhstan is notable for its varied landscape (which includes everything from desolate steppes to alpine scenery and deserts) and interesting ethnic mix. For much of its history, Kazakhstan has been ruled by invaders, from the Mongols in the 13th century to the Russians in the 18th. Kazkakhstan is one of the world’s most mineral rich nations and is considered to be leading the way in the future of the oil industry. Astana is one of the world’s newest, and most futuristic, capital cities. Astana literally means ‘capital city’ in Kazakh. Kazakhstan is famous for its population of wild horses. It’s believed that man first tamed and rode horses here.Coffee is often served very sweet in Kazakhstan - taking 10 spoons of sugar is not unusual! Apples are believed to have originated from the steppes, where you can still find many wild orchards. Apple seeds were likely taken and planted in other regions by traveling traders who enjoyed the fruits.